Go Back   Rangefinderforum.com > Cameras / Gear / Photography > Leicas and other Leica Mount Cameras > Voigtlander Lenses and Images

Voigtlander Lenses and Images Post threads showing images from Cosina Voigtlander Leica mount lenses here.

Reply
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread Display Modes

40mm / 1.2 is great, but ...
Old 12-19-2017   #1
ferider
Registered User
 
ferider's Avatar
 
ferider is offline
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 11,250
40mm / 1.2 is great, but ...

Technically, it turns out to be a "grail lens", it's very, very good: plenty sharp wide open, and undramatic vignetting - the first 1.2 lens that I could use for landscapes @f1.2. Beautiful bokeh, and only the faintest hint of distortion (pin-cushion at 2m in the corners). And small, smooth to operate, and easy 52mm filters. And with LV, I do like 0.5m min. focus.

Then again: it's a 900$ lens. And a hood is not included. Seriously ?

Roland.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #2
Robert Lai
Registered User
 
Robert Lai is offline
Join Date: May 2007
Posts: 1,627
Voigtlander and Zeiss play this game. No hood for their lenses. Hoods are about $50+ extra. I think the profit margin lies in the hood. How much does a threaded length of tubing cost to make?

I know the hood came with my Leica 90mm Macro Elmar M. And that's only a $3300+ lens.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #3
ferider
Registered User
 
ferider's Avatar
 
ferider is offline
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 11,250
$109 for the LH-8 hood. And I have no idea if a standard 52mm hood will vignette ... and frankly, why do I have to experiment until I find the right one ? For me the excluded hood is a first from CV.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #4
raid
Dad Photographer
 
raid's Avatar
 
raid is online now
Join Date: Nov 2005
Location: Florida
Posts: 30,358
I would be more interested in buying one day a Summilux 50/1.4.
__________________
- Raid

________________
Top 12 Images;

http://www.rangefinderforum.com/rffg...n.php?cid=7007

http://raid.smugmug.com/
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #5
nlubis
Registered User
 
nlubis's Avatar
 
nlubis is offline
Join Date: Apr 2009
Posts: 443
Sounds good to me. I've been waiting for review to trickle in.
Any focus shift?
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #6
Ko.Fe.
Kostya Fedot
 
Ko.Fe.'s Avatar
 
Ko.Fe. is offline
Join Date: Jul 2013
Location: MiltON.ONtario
Posts: 7,104
Can't comment on 40 lens. I have one for sale
Facebook sensed what I searched yesterday and showed me BH advert for 2K$ 35 1.4 lens.
My search yesterday was "Zeiss wobble". I learned it is wobble and then where is worn out helicoids, on few years old lenses...
If I'll need 35 1.4 I'd rather get well under 900$ Viogtlander lens than 2K$ wobble.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #7
zuiko85
Registered User
 
zuiko85 is offline
Join Date: Dec 2011
Posts: 1,861
Go to ebay, look at seller 'heavystar', get a 52mm hood for a 'standard' lens, pay $13 with shipping. For $13 take a chance it won't vignette. (probably won't)
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #8
ferider
Registered User
 
ferider's Avatar
 
ferider is offline
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 11,250
Quote:
Originally Posted by nlubis View Post
Sounds good to me. I've been waiting for review to trickle in.
Any focus shift?
The normal backwards shift, like most fast normal lenses, similar to CV 50/1.4 and 1.1. Perfectly usable.

Here is an infinty shot wide open before sun-rise this morning. Check out the guy in the circle.



Roland.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #9
ferider
Registered User
 
ferider's Avatar
 
ferider is offline
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 11,250
Quote:
Originally Posted by zuiko85 View Post
Go to ebay, look at seller 'heavystar', get a 52mm hood for a 'standard' lens, pay $13 with shipping. For $13 take a chance it won't vignette. (probably won't)
You do that with the VM 50/1.5 and it will vignette - and trust me, I'm a good customer of his. And 40 is 20% wider. That's not the point. The point is that the 50/1.5 VM did come with a hood. Why not the 40 ?
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #10
peterm1
Registered User
 
peterm1's Avatar
 
peterm1 is offline
Join Date: May 2006
Posts: 5,374
I agree that lens companies are a problem by not providing a suitable lens and expecting people who want one to pay big bucks for them. I do not do this - although I have been lucky enough to have bought some second hand lenses that the original owner equipped with a hood.
But instead, I habitually use cheap aftermarket lens hoods, most of which work perfectly OK (if anything they let in too much light in some cases but at least no vignetting and still some flare protection). The other advantage is that I am not fussed if I scar one up or ding it. The other thing I sometimes do if I think a specific hood may provoke a little vignetting on a given lens is to buy the next size up (e.g. a 55mm or 58mm instead of a 52mm) and use a stepping ring on the lens. This is often a better solution as it gives deep cover to the front element.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #11
nlubis
Registered User
 
nlubis's Avatar
 
nlubis is offline
Join Date: Apr 2009
Posts: 443
Thanks, Roland.

I'll keep tab on this thread.



Quote:
Originally Posted by ferider View Post
The normal backwards shift, like most fast normal lenses, similar to CV 50/1.4 and 1.1. Perfectly usable.

Here is an infinty shot wide open before sun-rise this morning. Check out the guy in the circle.


Roland.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #12
ruby.monkey
Registered User
 
ruby.monkey is offline
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: The Garden of England
Age: 49
Posts: 4,553
Quote:
Originally Posted by ferider View Post
$109 for the LH-8 hood. And I have no idea if a standard 52mm hood will vignette ... and frankly, why do I have to experiment until I find the right one ? For me the excluded hood is a first from CV.
The 40mm f/1.4 Nokton also came sans hood. I bought a very neat alternative to Cosina's offering from Analogue Robot, a maker on Shapeways.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #13
splitimageview
Registered User
 
splitimageview is offline
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 1,928
The Sony version comes with a hood, for $100 more
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #14
CameraQuest
Head Bartender
 
CameraQuest is offline
Join Date: Mar 2005
Location: over the hills from Malibu
Posts: 5,683
Quote:
Originally Posted by ferider View Post
Technically, it turns out to be a "grail lens", it's very, very good: plenty sharp wide open, and undramatic vignetting - the first 1.2 lens that I could use for landscapes @f1.2. Beautiful bokeh, and only the faintest hint of distortion (pin-cushion at 2m in the corners). And small, smooth to operate, and easy 52mm filters. And with LV, I do like 0.5m min. focus.

Then again: it's a 900$ lens. And a hood is not included. Seriously ?

Roland.
Seriously?

The first 40mm f1.2 in the history of photography and you are whining about not getting a free hood?

FYI no vented hood is included with the Voigtlander 35/1.2, 35/1.4, 35/1.7, 35/2.5 or 40/1.4.

The 40/1.2 is capable of stunning images and beautiful bokeh
at 1/5 the same lens would cost with a Leica nameplate,
and you are complaining you are not getting a free vented hood with the lens.
On top of that its small for its aperture and handles great on an M body.

Seriously?

Stephen
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #15
Robert Lai
Registered User
 
Robert Lai is offline
Join Date: May 2007
Posts: 1,627
Heavystar hoods won't work, unless you find one made for 35mm lenses. The ones made for 50mm lenses will vignette a 40mm lens.

I found out that it was hard to find a hood for my Jupiter 3+ 50mm lens, as all the "standard" length hoods vignette. I ended up using wide angle hoods with an empty 40.5mm filter ring to increase the depth.

I'm now trying a Canon S-42 hood, which is slip on with a locking screw. This was originally meant for their 50mm f/1.5 Sonnar lens, so it should work. No, Lomography never offered a hood for the Jupiter 3+ either.

Back to the 40mm saga. I bought the 40mm f/2 Ultron (first version) in Nikon F mount. The original one came with a domed hood with a cutout. It's not very effective as light from my bulb flashes (e.g. Nikon BC-7) will enter the corners and produce a veiling flare throughout a large portion of the image. So, now I've bought the Voigtlander LH-40 IIS hood made for the newly restyled version of this lens. Hopefully this more conventional hood will be better at shielding against stray light. The 40 f/2 Ultron doesn't come with a hood either. The hood is $49, hence my original comment about a $50 extra charge.

If you don't need the f/1.2 speed, I highly recommend the 40mm f/2 Ultron ASPH. It's the Summicron of this focal length. This is the lens that caused me to sell off all of my Nikon 35mm AIS lenses, which were just inferior to this. The Nikons had large quantities of barrel distortion, were hazy wide open (especially the 35 f/1.4 AIS), and had visible curvature of field. As a plus, the Ultron has now been restyled to resemble the early Nikon F lenses.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #16
Huss
Registered User
 
Huss is offline
Join Date: Sep 2014
Location: Venice, CA
Posts: 7,206
Quote:
Originally Posted by ferider View Post

Then again: it's a 900$ lens. And a hood is not included. Seriously ?

Roland.
If it makes you feel any better, the lens hood for the $2300 Zeiss ZM 35 1.4 is $154 extra.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #17
alan davus
Registered User
 
alan davus's Avatar
 
alan davus is offline
Join Date: May 2006
Location: happy valley S. Australia
Age: 67
Posts: 757
So a super fast 40 1.2 lens for $1009 including hood...sounds like a bargain to me.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-19-2017   #18
zuiko85
Registered User
 
zuiko85 is offline
Join Date: Dec 2011
Posts: 1,861
Well, I've bought the appropriate hoods for my Olympus Pen F (film) lenses (43mm size) from heavystar and the only hood I had to shorten was for the 20mm f3.5 (28mm/e to full frame) Fortunately I can usually find a way to do a neat job without a metal lathe.

I also bought a small hood w/lens cap for my CV 35mm f2.5 PII, this although I have the CV vented hood for it. The small, non vented hood does not intrude into the frame and is very compact. The CV hood made for this lens is too large and spoils what is a very compact combo.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #19
Perks
Registered User
 
Perks is offline
Join Date: Jun 2015
Posts: 87
Zuiko85, do you have the details of that hood?
I'm not a fan of the voigtlander hood.
Thanks
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #20
Pherdinand
the snow must go on
 
Pherdinand's Avatar
 
Pherdinand is offline
Join Date: Jul 2004
Location: by the river called the Gender
Age: 42
Posts: 7,819
buy the 50mm heavystar round vented hood, and hammer it from round into a 2:3 rectangle... i expect this will remove vignetting while improving flare combat
__________________
Happy New Year, Happy New Continent!
eye contact eye
My RFF Foolery
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #21
jmilkins
Digited User
 
jmilkins's Avatar
 
jmilkins is offline
Join Date: Dec 2004
Location: landdownunder
Posts: 1,171
Thanks Roland - your examples and analysis are welcome, as always.

On the issue of hoods - if a manufacturer felt a hood would appreciably improve the quality of their lens’ output, then I would hope they would include it as standard.

I’m certainly not questioning the comparative value and quality of this particular lens - a great achievement , kudos to Mr K and his team. And I will probably buy one when I can.

But why would you release a product to market that is not performing at its optimum ? Where is the pride in your product being the best it can be?

I’m not directing this solely at CV but at any manufacturer that asks “would you like firies with that?”
__________________
John

My gallery
The FlickR

"To ∞, and beyond!" B. Lightyear, 1995.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #22
creenus
Registered User
 
creenus is offline
Join Date: Jun 2015
Posts: 154
I use Chinese aluminum hoods on my Leica lenses. They help protect the filter/lens and do not vignette. I cut down a 90mm hood slightly for my 75mm Summarit. Again, cheap but functional. I'm not paying hundreds for a Leica hood - they're nice and all, but I can live with aluminum and not brass.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #23
zuiko85
Registered User
 
zuiko85 is offline
Join Date: Dec 2011
Posts: 1,861
Quote:
Originally Posted by Perks View Post
Zuiko85, do you have the details of that hood?
I'm not a fan of the voigtlander hood.
Thanks
That particular hood was found by a ebay search for '39mm lens hood' and then scrolling through the large selection. Look for a solid (not vented) 39mm hood marked 'W' for wide with a 46mm front lens cap size, that is what mine is and I bought it about 3 years ago. In a search there are just hundreds of large vented hoods for 39mm, all about the same size as the CV hood so it can be hard to find.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #24
ferider
Registered User
 
ferider's Avatar
 
ferider is offline
Join Date: May 2005
Posts: 11,250
Quote:
Originally Posted by CameraQuest View Post
Seriously?

The first 40mm f1.2 in the history of photography and you are whining about not getting a free hood?

: : :

Seriously?

Stephen
Business must be good, Stephen, if you can treat a repeat customer and long-standing forum member like that. Good for you.

No. I don't mind the price (and am not asking for a free hood), and I obviously appreciate the lens' qualities, see the OP. I do mind having to do a second purchase and waiting for another week for the hood, however, and would appreciate that "Hood is not included" or similar is part of the lens' advertisement. As simple as that.

Roland.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #25
Erik van Straten
Registered User
 
Erik van Straten's Avatar
 
Erik van Straten is offline
Join Date: May 2008
Posts: 8,037
To be honest I did not like the hoods that came with my VM 50mm f/1.5 and VM 35mm f/1.7 lenses. I've found replacements that are more functional and look better too. Using the lens without a hood is better than using the lens with a hood that does not match the lens in looks.

for 35mm f/1.7:



for 50mm f/1.5:



Erik.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #26
Ko.Fe.
Kostya Fedot
 
Ko.Fe.'s Avatar
 
Ko.Fe. is offline
Join Date: Jul 2013
Location: MiltON.ONtario
Posts: 7,104
It is all about hoods here. I paid 1.2K$ for 35 2.5 NiB Leica M mount lens in 2016. It came with no hood and it costs above hundred dollars. But, somehow, I'm not pissed off about it.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #27
creenus
Registered User
 
creenus is offline
Join Date: Jun 2015
Posts: 154
Well, I appreciate what you offer (quality glass at affordable prices) and I hope you can stay in business.

People forget that profits are necessary to keep a company going. And others believe they are entitled to bargains at the expense of business owners. And others still can never be happy, no matter what deal they get.

Life is too short for squabbling over lens accessories, IMO. YMMV, of course.

Quote:
Originally Posted by CameraQuest View Post
Seriously?

The first 40mm f1.2 in the history of photography and you are whining about not getting a free hood?

FYI no vented hood is included with the Voigtlander 35/1.2, 35/1.4, 35/1.7, 35/2.5 or 40/1.4.

The 40/1.2 is capable of stunning images and beautiful bokeh
at 1/5 the same lens would cost with a Leica nameplate,
and you are complaining you are not getting a free vented hood with the lens.
On top of that its small for its aperture and handles great on an M body.

Seriously?

Stephen
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #28
raid
Dad Photographer
 
raid's Avatar
 
raid is online now
Join Date: Nov 2005
Location: Florida
Posts: 30,358
I would add the cost of the matching lens hood to the lens of the new lens and then I would decide if the total cost is what I am willing to pay or not. Yes, of course it should be clearly stated what is included with the lens. Expectations may differ from different buyers. When you are about to buy a car, say, you expect the car to come with the 4 tires.
__________________
- Raid

________________
Top 12 Images;

http://www.rangefinderforum.com/rffg...n.php?cid=7007

http://raid.smugmug.com/
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #29
Daryl J.
Registered User
 
Daryl J. is offline
Join Date: Jul 2015
Posts: 377
Lens hoods were extra for all my lenses save where they were (dysfunctionally) built in.

Am looking forward to getting this lens in 2018.


D
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #30
bayernfan
Registered User
 
bayernfan is offline
Join Date: Feb 2015
Posts: 704
accessories are where serious money is to be made, we all know this. with this particular lens, voigtlander (cosina, etc) is betting that the customer will really want the hood.

it looks like the LH-8 hood goes for $110. if voigtlander was wise, they'd package it with lens and bump the total price up $40 to $50. they'd still be making a nice profit on the hood and they'd be doing right by the customer.

instead, they've pissed off a lot of customers, and many of them are going to go look at third party hoods. any profit that could have been made is out the window.
__________________
M_V instagram
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #31
f16sunshine
Moderator
 
f16sunshine's Avatar
 
f16sunshine is offline
Join Date: Apr 2009
Location: Seattle
Age: 51
Posts: 6,258
Quote:
Originally Posted by ferider View Post
Technically, it turns out to be a "grail lens", it's very, very good: plenty sharp wide open, and undramatic vignetting - the first 1.2 lens that I could use for landscapes @f1.2. Beautiful bokeh, and only the faintest hint of distortion (pin-cushion at 2m in the corners). And small, smooth to operate, and easy 52mm filters. And with LV, I do like 0.5m min. focus.

Then again: it's a 900$ lens. And a hood is not included. Seriously ?

Roland.
It's a legit complaint and one it seems Cosina should remedy. Yet...
..However bad a taste it leaves, I doubt Cosina will lose any sales of the lens.
It's too unique of a piece and the price is still so well below its competitors (? at 35mm ? 50mm?).
I'm surprised at the sharpness at wide open... amazing for $1k when one compares to Leica Summilux 35 or Zeiss Distagon35 !!!!
__________________
Andy
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #32
raid
Dad Photographer
 
raid's Avatar
 
raid is online now
Join Date: Nov 2005
Location: Florida
Posts: 30,358
This lens sells for $899 online. Is this the best asking price right now?
__________________
- Raid

________________
Top 12 Images;

http://www.rangefinderforum.com/rffg...n.php?cid=7007

http://raid.smugmug.com/
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #33
CameraQuest
Head Bartender
 
CameraQuest is offline
Join Date: Mar 2005
Location: over the hills from Malibu
Posts: 5,683
Quote:
Originally Posted by ferider View Post
That's not the point. The point is that the 50/1.5 VM did come with a hood. Why not the 40 ?
The 50/1.5 includes a straight non vented hood. That lens is about half the size of the 40/1.2 and the 50/1.5 lens barrel intrudes much less into the viewfinder.

A solid 40/1.2 hood will be harder to shoot with as it will block the subject, unless its so small its shading value could be questionable.

For the 40/1.2, Voigtlander chose a vented hood as the best lens hood solution. Voigtlander M lenses seldom include vented lens hoods. Only the 75/1.8 includes a small vented hood.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #34
loneranger
Registered User
 
loneranger is offline
Join Date: Feb 2006
Posts: 419
I would rather pay 899 with no hood than 1050 with a hood that i may or may not like, so I am really glad they did not include a a hood, to make this more affordable. Agree with Stephen wholeheartedly here,
__________________
Fuji SW 690, canon 7, konica 35 uc hex, canon 28/3.5ltm, canon 28/2.8 ltm, olympus pen ft, pany g1
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #35
bayernfan
Registered User
 
bayernfan is offline
Join Date: Feb 2015
Posts: 704
serious question: they make bargain optics, why can't they make bargain accessories? leica hoods are not 5x more expensive, right?
__________________
M_V instagram
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #36
Ko.Fe.
Kostya Fedot
 
Ko.Fe.'s Avatar
 
Ko.Fe. is offline
Join Date: Jul 2013
Location: MiltON.ONtario
Posts: 7,104
Bargain optics is 50 1.1 lens under 400$. It also comes without hood. Because bargain hoods costs under ten dollars.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #37
Bille
Registered User
 
Bille's Avatar
 
Bille is offline
Join Date: Nov 2012
Age: 41
Posts: 750
Quote:
Originally Posted by CameraQuest View Post
Seriously?
(...)

The 40/1.2 is capable of stunning images and beautiful bokeh
at 1/5 the same lens would cost with a Leica nameplate,
and you are complaining you are not getting a free vented hood with the lens.
On top of that its small for its aperture and handles great on an M body.

Seriously?
Itīs still bad habit not to include a proper hood. Especially at 900$ retail.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #38
Daryl J.
Registered User
 
Daryl J. is offline
Join Date: Jul 2015
Posts: 377
I am itching to see a comparison with real images between the 1.2/50 Noctilux and this 1.2/40. I bet it cements the value of the new CV piece given the $15,000-30,000 price tag of Leica's glass.

At $1200 the 1.5/50 C Sonnar is a solid value according to the market.
At ~$800, the 1.5/50 Nokton is a solid value according to the market.
At $3895, the 1.4/50 Summilux ASPH is a solid value according to the market.

That some markets disinclude me is perfectly acceptable.

That a lens hood suddenly is an issue for a few individuals when it hasn't been an issue in the market for decades is, well, silly.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #39
peterm1
Registered User
 
peterm1's Avatar
 
peterm1 is offline
Join Date: May 2006
Posts: 5,374
Cosina - Voigtlander is a bit idiosyncratic about hoods. Most do not come with one but the Ultron 28mm f2 does have a small removable hood designed as part of the lens and the 50mm f1.1 comes with a hood as does the 75mm f1.8. I am not sure why this is, other than for marketing reasons, but many other Voigtlander lenses do not come so equipped.
Olympus also tends not to provide hoods in their lens' price, at least for m43 lenses - at least not in my experience. And they charge high prices for the hoods they make available as an accessory purchase. So what this has done is to provoke the availability of some quite nice and relatively inexpensive substitute hoods on eBay out of China. I am not totally sure why this has not happened with Voigtlander lenses. Perhaps because many are satisfied with the very cheap screw in hoods (similar to Leica's slotted hoods) that are readily available for those lenses because many Voigtlander lenses are designed for M cameras and slotted Leica-like hoods are acceptable on such lenses. I do this myself but more out of necessity.
I have often thought that there are two lens hood designs I would pay a premium for (though hopefully not a premium of something around one hundred bucks like many Olympus hoods). I would like a wider range of after market metal clamp fit hoods which I prefer to screw in ones. And I would like a wider range of after market metal rectangular hoods. A few of these are available but not many which means one has to resort to vintage hoods if one does not want a bog standard hood of the slotted Leica type out of China. The problem with vintage hoods I have found is that many of them are from the USA and on eBay when you buy a $10 or $20 small item from the USA you will often be stiffed with a further $20-$30 postage fee and this is out of the question for an otherwise inexpensive item.
  Reply With Quote

Old 12-20-2017   #40
Perks
Registered User
 
Perks is offline
Join Date: Jun 2015
Posts: 87
Quote:
Originally Posted by zuiko85 View Post
That particular hood was found by a ebay search for '39mm lens hood' and then scrolling through the large selection. Look for a solid (not vented) 39mm hood marked 'W' for wide with a 46mm front lens cap size, that is what mine is and I bought it about 3 years ago. In a search there are just hundreds of large vented hoods for 39mm, all about the same size as the CV hood so it can be hard to find.
Aha, a screw in marked W.
Thanks!
  Reply With Quote
Reply


Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

vB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off



All times are GMT -8. The time now is 09:21.


vBulletin skin developed by: eXtremepixels
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.6.8
Copyright ©2000 - 2019, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.

All content on this site is Copyright Protected and owned by its respective owner. You may link to content on this site but you may not reproduce any of it in whole or part without written consent from its owner.