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View Poll Results: Most Typical DIY Film Agitation Approach
Hand Agitation: 1 Sequence per Minute 81 69.83%
Hand Agitation: 1 Sequence every 2 or 3 Minutes 10 8.62%
Machine Agitation: Jobo, Filmomat.eu or similar 20 17.24%
Machine Agitation: Uniroller Assisted or similar 2 1.72%
Other 8 6.90%
Multiple Choice Poll. Voters: 116. You may not vote on this poll

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DIY Film Development: Hand, Jobo, or Other
Old 08-18-2017   #1
roscoetuff
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DIY Film Development: Hand, Jobo, or Other

So I'm looking over at the new Photrio site and seems as if a fair number of folks are developing with Jobos. Convenience... I suppose. I bought a Uniroller for a roll-your-won agitator... but I've just not bothered to figure out how to get it up and running. Results are fine by hand.

But I thought it might be curious to see if we polled the group - for all those times we don't do "Stand Development" (in which case the choice of agitation once a day or other isn't relevant), how do we agitate our film tanks?

So here's a poll. I'm going to flesh out a few other choices for agitation by hand - if you have the patience. Thanks folks!
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Old 08-18-2017   #2
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Stirred, not shaken. I don't find it inconvenient to do the agitation by hand...
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Old 08-18-2017   #3
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Standard in our lab at uni is first 30s continuous agitation, then twice per minute. That is what everyone is taught at first. For special (compensating/acutance) developers I use once per minute. Still first 30s for mixing though.

Uni developer is D-76. At the moment I use FX-39 with Pan-F/FP4+. Xtol/Tri-X is what I will try next for Autumn/Winter. What agitation would be good for that?

E: Forgot the other important part. Agitation means turning the Jobo over slowly two times and tapping it on the sink.

Last edited by Blaidd_Drwgg : 08-18-2017 at 14:17. Reason: Details added
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Old 08-18-2017   #4
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Jobo set up takes time. Worth it for color film and the precision is high.

Decades ago I did E6 in a waterbath , 6 open tanks in the dark with a lifting rod. Every roll was always perfect. Kodak 6 step. 3 step is inferior.

Nikor tanks & reels I have owned for 60 years best for black and white.
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Old 08-18-2017   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Blaidd_Drwgg View Post
Standard in our lab at uni is first 30s continuous agitation, then twice per minute. That is what everyone is taught at first. For special (compensating/acutance) developers I use once per minute. Still first 30s for mixing though.

Uni developer is D-76. At the moment I use FX-39 with Pan-F/FP4+. Xtol/Tri-X is what I will try next for Autumn/Winter. What agitation would be good for that?

E: Forgot the other important part. Agitation means turning the Jobo over slowly two times and tapping it on the sink.
D76 is the best all round developer. 5 sec/5 inversions every 30 sec. Continuous for 30 sec on immersion.

Kodak publication for B&W film tells all and it is perfect if you have a perfect thermometer.
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Old 08-18-2017   #6
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No way I'll waste space for Jobo countertop dishwasher. My tiny, made in Germany, metal developing tank isn't really tank, but cup.

And classic agitation is every 30 seconds.
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Old 08-18-2017   #7
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It depends on the film and developer being used. Some films like t max have thick emulsion bases and require more agitation. So with rodinal I would do 5 inversions ever 30 sec but tri-x with say HC 110 I would do 5 every minute. I always liked metal tanks and metal reals and did it by hand. Even did some dip and dunk in total darkness. Sheet film 4X5 and 8X10 in trays.
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Old 08-18-2017   #8
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The Jobo brought a consistency to 35mm, roll and sheet film development that I didn't find using hand agitation methods. After using the thing for 18 years, I guess I just don't question whether it's the best way or not. It just works so I keep using it.
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Old 08-19-2017   #9
Blaidd_Drwgg
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ronald M View Post
Kodak publication for B&W film tells all and it is perfect if you have a perfect thermometer.
No such thing. But I already wisened up and now always use the same thermometer.
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Old 08-19-2017   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Blaidd_Drwgg View Post
No such thing. But I already wisened up and now always use the same thermometer.
It does not have to be correct to the last fraction of a degree, just repeatable.

I have a Kodak Process one used only to check the dial ones I actually use. Then I inherited a second process one and it is off from the first.
History of it is unknown, but one or both is out of the stated tolerance of 1/4 degree. I know mine was treated well and hung vertically all the time.

The key here you need a home standard because they can not be sent to the American bureau of Standards for checking.

I own gage blocks for my micrometer and other measuring tools for same reason. Keep them within reason

How about the scales for measuring developer components? Uless jou buy the stuff in a bottle or bag.
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Old 08-19-2017   #11
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For B&W I either use a Uniroller for typical development but have lately been developing stand with almost no agitation.

For color I was using the Uniroller but switched to inversions due to leakage as well as being able to keep the tank in a tempered water bath.

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Old 08-19-2017   #12
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I've always used steel tanks like most here, I have quite an accumulation.


Several years ago I bought JOBO 2500 Multitanks 5 and 6, using them now on Unicolor Unirollers for B&W. I can process eight rolls of 120 B&W at a go in the Multitank 6 in one run. With replenished Legacy Mic-X, dev times are extremely long, up to twenty-five minutes for my tastes. That is a long time to invert a tank! Like Calzone, I guess I am a lazy slacker!

The Bonus with the JOBO is that I can process eighteen sheets of 6.5x9cm cut film in one go! Also 9x12cm and 4x5. Expensive but very versatile system.
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Old 08-19-2017   #13
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Here I have modified a JOBO 120/220 reel, to take the wider 70mm B&W film. Now now I can process short lengths of 70mm film in my Multitank 6. On the left end, is a JOBO 16mm reel.

Jobo 2502 70mm Reel Modification by Nokton48, on Flickr

You can't do this with steel tanks.
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Old 08-19-2017   #14
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I have JOBO tanks for black and white, Kindermann SS tanks for color and a JOBO drum for 4x5. I have some bigger drums too, but I don't use them.

Everything is done by hand except for the 4x5 which is put on a Beseler Color roller base.

Rodinal is agitated every 30 seconds to minimize adjacency effects. Pyrocat ever minute. I agitate relatively gently to prevent surge marks and whack the tank to prevent bubbles.

I guess what I am saying is I would mark "all the above" on your poll if it was there.
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Old 08-19-2017   #15
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Hand agitation - 1 every 30 secs, chose 1 every min as the former option is not available.
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B&W development
Old 08-19-2017   #16
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B&W development

Jobo CPP2 for nearly 30 years. PMK Pyro, 2/4/100, 11 minutes,, for sheet film; Rodinal 1/50, 12 minutes for 120 and 35mm. I get good clean negatives with Rodinal, and a good stain with the PMK (contact printing in salt and Ziatype) . Stand development in Rodinal, 1/300, for around two and a half hours, for ortho film.

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Old 08-20-2017   #17
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Hand agitation.
One inversion per second, typically 10 seconds every minute, but it varies depending on film and developer.
I tried the stirrer once and had uneven development. Inversions from then on.
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Old 08-20-2017   #18
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Darshan View Post
Hand agitation - 1 every 30 secs, chose 1 every min as the former option is not available.
Same here.
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Old 08-20-2017   #19
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I have been using roll film daylight developing tanks since high school forty years ago.
Even at my peak usage I was never interested in developing more than two rolls simultaneously.
Consequently I have never been interested in motorized bases.
They might be a convenience but also seem like they'd be an unnecessary complication to me;
i.e. more hardware, more energy use, more noise, more to malfunction etc.

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Old 08-20-2017   #20
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Agree with Chris... and others that the machine approach... well... I'm paused on the whole of it.

As to "classic" agitation every 30 seconds, Ilford's datasheets recommend "4 inversions (10-seconds) every minute". Not sure it makes that much difference. But it's my routine for Perceptol. I've not ventured everywhere, but I suppose every 30 seconds involves fewer inversions for similar effect.

Again, the whole of this is very helpful for a relative newby to see what others are actually doing as a guide. Thank you!
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Old 08-20-2017   #21
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I got a Jobo because I know that if I use manual agitation I'll just start doing something else and forget I have put a film in the soup. With the Jobo at least I stay with it watching the clock. Also a bit more confidence it stays at the same temperature. OK, I got it for a good price as well

But there should have been an option: "a lab, all the time".
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Old 08-21-2017   #22
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I missed the classic every 30 secs choice so chose other.. Al manual with a Patterson tank
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Old 08-23-2017   #23
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It totally depends on what I'm developing. E6 is a pure Job operation, Black and white I use a conventional hand agitated tank, but I use my Jobo to get my chemicals at the proper temperature.
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1 minute
Old 08-24-2017   #24
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1 minute

After a lot of reading, and trial and error, I settle on the best method that gives me no problems: I agitate (as many inversions fit in) for the first initial minute, then 10 seconds of every following minute. Except when I do stand development, I agitate for 50 seconds and let it untouched for 60 minutes.
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Old 08-25-2017   #25
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15 seconds initial, then either every minute or every ˝ min. Depends on the film. Metal tanks and reels.

Sheet film is first ˝ minute, then one shuffle through the stack every minute. Tray development.
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Old 08-25-2017   #26
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C41 only for me now. Follow directions from the kit. I do have an issue with the Blix coming out of the tank when inverting so I use the plunger for Blix and invert for developer. In the process of developing 10+ rolls of 120 shot from spring til now.
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Old 09-10-2017   #27
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The Jobo makes it so easy! Almost too easy.

If I know I will be developing I will fill it in the morning and just let it sit. Very little true set up time.
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Old 09-10-2017   #28
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I shoot mostly only rollei retro 80s with rodinol 1+50 and give ten seconds of swirling (like a wine glass) every two minutes. For other films I just give two inversions every minuite. I use my Paterson tank I got for 50p at a car boot sale.
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Old 09-10-2017   #29
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I use the "hand turning" method. Paterson Tank.

30s, 5s/at 1m intervals till done

For HC110, H and TMax 1:4 or 1:9
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Old 09-10-2017   #30
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I said 'Other', because my process is slightly different than choice #1. Here is my complete process. I have been doing this exactly like this since 1976:
  1. Start pouring HC110 dilution b in at the beginning of the first minute, agitate slowly (one flip per 3 seconds) until the end of the first minute.
  2. Rap the (stainless steel) tank on the sink, and let it sit for 30 seconds.
  3. At the end of the rest cycle, flip it twice in 5 seconds, rap and rest for 25 sec.
  4. Repeat until the last half minute, then begin emptying the tank at 13 seconds until the end of the time.
  5. Immediately fill the tank with water, agitate twice, and pour it out. Repeat.
  6. Fill the tank with rapid fixer, and agitate for 2 minutes continuously.
  7. Rap and rest for 1 minute.
  8. Agitate continuously for 1 to 2 minutes, depending on the age of the fixer.
  9. Pour the fixer back into the bottle, and wash the film in running water for 20 minutes or more. Dump the water.
  10. Fill the tank with Photoflow, twist it horizontally for 1 minute, dump the photoflow.
  11. Remove the metal spiral film holders, rap them against the palm of my hand to dislodge drops of photoflow, unspool, and hang to dry in the shower over night.
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Old 09-11-2017   #31
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My tank is a Paterson clone, from Jessops. I develop 2 x 35mm films at a time, in Rodinal. Half a minute of inversions to start, then 2 inversions every half minute.
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Old 05-09-2019   #32
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I'm in the "by hand" camp; using a JOBO tank. Used to have a Paterson knockoff whose seals started to go and make a mess. I prefer the Paterson reels for 35mm though.

Undergrad and grad school darkrooms had nothing but steel tanks, and I never really got on with them. Every professor I had swore by them for some reason.

As for agitation: I should choose one or the other, but it depends on if I'm using Kodak ( every 30 sec) or Ilford (every minute) chemistry. I go by the listed time on data sheets supplied with the developer rather than the film. I suppose I could stick with every minute and add time to Ilford but I've got this all programmed into the DigitalTruth app and it works.

Re: machine agitation, I have an anecdote. When I was in high school someone donated a motorized tank agitator that I think was intended for prints and sheet film--didn't make full revolutions, just back and forth over and over. . A few of us gave it a shot and got horribly uneven rolls!
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Old 05-09-2019   #33
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30 seconds constant inversion/stirring at the outset, then 10 seconds of stirring each minute.

Semi-stand - 30 seconds at outset, then repeat 10 seconds of strirring/ agitation each 20 minutes until an hour is up.
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Old 05-09-2019   #34
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I only develop B&W at home now and use Jobo 25XX drums on a uniroller for convenience and consistency.

I process HP5+ or Neopan 400 for 4:39 minutes with HC110 B then fix it for 6-10 minutes.
Never had any issues doing it this way.

6:30 minutes if pushed to 800
10:45 minutes if pushed to 1600
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Old 05-10-2019   #35
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It kind of depends what I'm doing, Mostly when doing B/W on Ilford film in Ilfotec LC29 then I'll do a couple of inversions every minute. I'll do inversions if I'm doing Caffenol, too.
If I'm using R09 (Rodinal) then I'll stir, because I've found with some films (Fomapan, for example) I get insane amounts of bromide drag on 35mm which makes the results rather stripey.

C41 colour film I pre-heat the chemicals in a bucket of water using a sous-vide stick heater clamped onto the bucket. This was a tip I picked up somewhere last year and has made colour processing a load easier and more reliable. I stir for that, because the film tanks seem to leak a whole load more with the higher temperature chems.
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Old 05-10-2019   #36
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Quote:
Originally Posted by airfrogusmc View Post
It depends on the film and developer being used.
Quote:
Originally Posted by David Murphy View Post
It totally depends on what I'm developing.
Quote:
Originally Posted by AJShepherd View Post
It kind of depends what I'm doing
Yes, yes and yes.

I frequently change up my agitation depending upon the film/developer combination and the lighting conditions when I shot. I always use hand tanks (not enough room for a Jobo) and when I begin using a new film/dev combination I try several different agitation schemes to see which works most to my liking. I'll then stick with that agitation scheme every time I use that film with that developer.
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Old 05-10-2019   #37
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I bought a Jobo....never used it. Worst purchase ever.
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Old 05-10-2019   #38
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When film was my primary medium, it was Jobo CPE2+ all the way for both b&w and color, from 35mm to 4x5. Loved the consistency.
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Old 05-10-2019   #39
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Initial 30 second agitation then 5 inversions every minute. Generally with [email protected] I use HC110 dilution H (1:63) for 11 minutes.
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Old 05-10-2019   #40
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I had a Jobo I picked up in a trade 20 or more years ago (I gave a 50mm F2 Nikkor for it). Rarely used it except for slide film. Once I stopped doing slide shows I stopped shooting slide film. No longer having the permanent counter space for the Jobo I found it something of a PIA to set up. I never did like developing B&W in it. SS tanks & reels for color and B&W is just too simple and has a very small foot print.


As far as calibrating thermometers that is also very easy. Put the thermometer in an ice bath and it should read 32.2 deg F (or 0.0 C). Put it in boiling water and it should read 212 F / 100 C. If off throw it away.
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