Here's a good way to look at the issue. Actors get residuals each time their performances are aired. So to should photographers receive compensation each time their photos are reproduced - unless there is a negotiated agreement to the contrary - such as a buyout, or licensing fee for specified usage.
It's sad that there's so much in-fighting among photographers.
If a photographer chooses to work on spec or pro-bono - well than that is a negotiation between the photographer and the photo user. In such cases the photographer agree to this arrangement in the belief that some benefit will accrue to them. Whether it be the potential of a new revenue stream, exposure, or access to portfolio-worthy photo opps - whatever it is - the photographer is being compensated - and most importantly they are not being dictated to.
Never Seeing Nothing
, published by inkBooks
, published by PoliwagBooks