I think cult cameras are often based on extremes of a particular attribute - be it quality, size, image appearance, etc. As a result, there are a bunch of them out there. Personally, I tend towards smaller user cameras that produce good images. Here are ones that jump out at me:
XA - Smallest rangefinder
Minolta CLE - Smallest screw mount
Minolta 7sII - Best fixed lens rangefinder glass in a compact package
Yashica GX - Compact aperture priority
Yashica CC - Compact wide
Hexar - Quietest rangefinder
Olympus OM series - High end small SLRs with great glass.
Nikon 28ti - High end wide point and shoot.
Rolleiflex 2.8 - Top end TLR
Anything Leica - Quality, early
Anything rangefinders for that matter.
I'm actually leaving the Yashica TLRs and Canonets off this list. They are popular but I think that is mostly because there are so many of them out there more than anything. I'm also leaving Holga/LCA/Diane off the list as those are certainly cult-ish but seem more temporal and marketing driven at the moment.
Of these, I only have personal experience with the XA and a small amount with a IIIc. My first experiences with the XA were poor so I'm trying to give it another chance. The IIIc is nice but I'm too cheap to buy Leica glass and am less likely to stumble across it cheap than some of the other gear above. I'm not sure where I'm going with it yet, though I like using the camera.