Harry Callahan and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy are both famous and both did interesting double exposure work.
More recent: try Ian Hornack http://www.ianhornak.com/index_ian_hornak-27.html
, not entirely to my taste.
Some of my favourite double exposures are by Ernst Haas, see 'Spring' and 'Summer'. With both photos he shot the first exposure slightly OOF and overexposed, then the second exposure focused and correctly exposed. The result is a very dreamy look. You can find these photos in his book The Creation.
And don't forget Muybridge..