Jani: I think you have posed conditions that are too difficult.
I suggest you look for a used lens, but you have set difficult parameters. Price goes up with build quality and with lens speed. For instance, there is a 35/3.5 Summaron in the classifieds now for US $400. It is a good lens, but not fast and prone to flare.
I think the 35/1.7 C/V offering is perfect -- modern optics, coated, sharp. But you have said you don't like the build quality. Ditto the C/V 35/2.5 -- although I just got one of these used for $250 and I don't think there is anything wrong with the build of the lens.
The Canon 35/1.8 has many fans, but the "focus throw"is too long, you have said.
So: you want a sharp (modern), inexpensive, lens with stellar build quality and a short focus throw? = empty set. Other than the lenses you have excluded and the ones Johann listed, it doesn't exist.
My suggestion: put aside your prejudice against C/V lenses. Get a 35/1.7 and be happy.
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